The choices and experiences of women are shaping 21st century cities–in fact, they also did so in the past, an often-overlooked phenomenon.
First, consider the choice to have fewer children. In 1959 women in the US and Canada had on average 3.7 to 3.9 children in their lifetimes. To look after this larger household, one person needed to make this their full-time job and the family needed the space offered in the suburbs. The division of labour in the household and separation of residential from industrial and commercial spaces fit society.
Today, women in Canada have 1.6 children in their lifetime, on average. In the US, although the national average fertility rate is 2.1, among college-educated women the number is closer to that of Canada.
This allows for a different urban development pattern, motivated in part by the choices of working women. You can raise one or two kids in an apartment, condo, or urban townhouse much easier than four of them. Moreover, fewer children allows for the potential for more women to maintain careers while also being dedicated mothers.
Second, the expanding knowledge economy requires clusters of educated, innovative people. Women earn 55% of bachelor’s and master’s degrees in the US and Canada. Knowledge-based companies (which could be anything from engineering firms to accounting, computer programing, or advertising) need to attract and retain talent. They need women, as well as men, in order to keep their positions filled.
These big, structural changes in society and the economy require changes in the urban environment to accommodate them.
One change that is happening is a shift toward higher-density living closer to employment nodes such as downtowns and town centers. Living in condominiums or (luxury) apartment rentals, are two more visible housing choices that many individuals and families are making in order to balance career and family or in the absence of children other lifestyle choices. There is also stealth density happening in the formerly-single-family neighbourhoods whereby duplexes, triplexes, and extra suites in houses are adding homes closer to employment nodes.
In larger metros (think Toronto, Chicago, etc.), where much of the housing is in the suburbs, and a long commute to downtown, we may see companies specifically locating satellite offices in the suburbs in order to hire the hidden talent pool of educated women who are available while their kids are in school. Rather than being motivated by less expensive real estate prices in certain suburban business parks (as they were in the past), one Toronto-based commercial real estate broker told me that attracting the “9 to 3 labour pool” is motivating some of his clients’ decisions.
If women won’t or can’t come to them downtown, they’ll go to where the women are. Not all women like (or will be able to afford) high-density urban living, but they’re still educated and talented.
What I expect to change in the suburbs, in response, is the type of office space in demand. Isolated business parks may not be as attractive as office space in closer proximity to residential areas, perhaps attached to the community shopping centre or in a suburban “town center.”
Certainly, the types of jobs and careers available to the woman who chooses close-to-downtown, or downtown living for her family may be different than those in the suburbs. The suburbs have traditionally offered more service-oriented “back office” type positions that are frequently lower paying. However, this could change.
To some extent these isolated examples (so far) of moves to where the women are go against other urban workplace trends I’m seeing. In particular, some major Canadian corporations have been or are in the process of consolidating their operations into a single downtown location (rather than have offices scattered throughout the metro areas). Or maybe the motivator is the same: going where the people you want to hire live.
The location of job space is perhaps at a cross roads. But it will be women’s choices that shape where new office space will be, as it always has been.
What do you see happening?